Subject: UnixWare Frequently Asked Questions (General)
 Date:    14 Sep 1997 08:27:14 GMT
 From: (Andrew Josey)
           comp.unix.unixware.misc, comp.answers, news.answers

 Archive-name: unix-faq/unixware/general
 Posting-Frequency: monthly
 Last-modified: 6 Jul 1997
 Version: 2.12

For more information about the files which make up the total UnixWare FAQ,
see the "FAQ Overview" file posted regularly on the Internet newsgroup

This is the General section of the UnixWare Frequently Asked Questions file
maintained on the Internet. Its maintainers are Evan Leibovitch
(evan(a) and Andrew Josey (andrew(a)
Suggestions and contributions are always welcome.

The General section covers general aspects of UnixWare not covered in the
other sections of the FAQ be subdivided in the future if necessary.

This document and the other FAQ files may be found on the world wide web at

This document may also be obtained by anonymous ftp from the freebird
archive at


Small print: This file is Copyright 1997 Permission is granted
for copying for non-commercial use. Many proper names of companies and
software mentioned in these files are trademarks of their respective owners.
All views are those of the individual contributors and not of their

This FAQ contains the following questions and answers:

G1) What is UnixWare? Is it really SVR4 based?
G2) Where can I purchase UnixWare?
G3) How much does UnixWare cost?
G4) What industry standards does UnixWare support?
G5) What versions of X11 and Motif are supported? What about CDE?
G6) What's new in UnixWare 2? How about 2.1?
G7) What are UnixWare's hardware requirements?  Does it run on a PC?
    How can I find out hardware compatibility?
G8) What is the current release/version of UnixWare?
G9) Can I upgrade from any version of UnixWare 1.1 to version 2.0?
G10) What is the UnixWare "Personal Edition"?
G11) What is the UnixWare "Application Server"?
G12) Are there any books I can read/purchase about UnixWare?
G13) How about review articles on UnixWare?
G14) Are there anonymous ftp / mail server sites with UnixWare archives?
G15) Where can I get online information on UnixWare?
G16) Where can I get a hardware compatibility list for UnixWare?
G17) Where can I find a driver for [accelerated graphics card]?
G18) Is there a UnixWare user's group?
G19) Does UnixWare support multiprocessing?
G20) Does UnixWare function as a NetWare server?
G21) What is the future for UnixWare?



UnixWare is one of SCO's UNIX operating system offerings (transferred from
Novell to SCO on Dec 6th 1995), combining UNIX(R) System V Release 4.2
for 80x86 processors (including Multiprocessors)  with NetWare client
connectivity (and NW Server in UW2.1), DOS Merge, Motif, support and
documentation.  It provides a graphical user interface based on the
X11R5 windowing system, and is capable of running Unix, DOS, and/or
Windows programs.

UnixWare, first released in November 1992, was the product of a
jointly-owned venture, named Univel, between Novell and Unix System
Laboratories (USL, then 77% majority owned by AT&T).  In June 1993,
Novell completed its acquisition of USL and, by extension, Univel.
USL and Univel were folded into the Novell Unix Systems Group
(USG, the namesake of an earlier group by the same
name at AT&T).

UnixWare 2 and 2.1 were developed by the same team (formerly
at 190 River Road, Summit, New Jersey, then Florham Park, NJ)
that worked with Sun Microsystems to create UNIX(R) System V Release 4.
UnixWare 1.x was based on the UNIX(R) System V Release 4.2 kernel completed
by USL in July 1992 , and UnixWare 2.x was based on the UNIX(R) System V
Release 4.2MP kernel completed by USL in December 1993.

In September 1995 Novell announced it was pulling out of the UNIX(R) business
and that the UnixWare business would transfer to SCO Inc. The transfer
completed on December 6th 1995.  Future development of UnixWare 2 will be
done by  SCO at Florham Park and other sites TBD.

The UNIX trademark, previously owned by AT&T and then deeded to USL,
passed to Novell with the acquisition of USL.  After a brief period of
negotiations with rival Unix vendors Sun Microsystems, Santa Cruz
Operation, International Business Machines, and Hewlett-Packard,
Novell granted exclusive licensing rights to the UNIX trademark to
X/Open, now part of The Open Group, an international Open Systems industry
standards organization.  The UNIX trademark is now owned by The Open Group
for Q&A's on X/Open UNIX and the branding programme); the industry
agreed definition of UNIX (branded as UNIX95 previously "Spec1170") is a
set of over 1,000-odd applications programming interfaces (APIs) drawn
from the following standards:

  IEEE Portable Operating System's Interface (POSIX) 1003.1
  AT&T's System V Interface Definition SVID3
  X/Open's XPG4 Version 2 interface specification
  "Use-based" APIs drawn from an assortment of third-party vendors

The Open Group has now made a HTML translation of the Single UNIX
Specification on the world wide web

UnixWare 1.x and 2.x are or were UNIX 93 branded (SCO seemed to
drop the 1.x release off the register). UnixWare 2.1.1 and later
are UNIX 95 branded, that is are conforming to the Single UNIX Specification.

X/Open maintains an online list of branded products.

A summary of some of the key features of UnixWare (taken from follows:

   32-bit processing with a fully-multithreaded kernel and preemptive
   Based on the latest version of UNIX SVR4.2 MP multiprocessor technology
   Asynchronous I/O
   Kernel, disk I/O and networking protocols are multithreaded for optimal
   performance and scalability
   User-levels threads APIs for writing multithreaded applications
   Dynamically loadable modules including device drivers, file systems, etc.,
   to optimize memory utilization and performance
   Adheres to POSIX 1003.1, X/Open XPG4 Base Profile Brand, FIPS 151-2,
   UNIX System V ABI, ABI+, SVID 3, iBCS2 and X Consortium ICCCM
   Point-and click, drag-and-drop GUI
   Clock, calculator, text editor, e-mail and terminal emulator
   Online hypertext documentation and help facility
   OSF/Motif 1.2.3 GUI for desktop and applications
   Support for X-Window X11R5 facilities, including bit-mapped fonts
   Adobe Type Manager plus 13 Adobe Type 1 scalable fonts (uses standard DOS
   and Adobe fonts)
   Intuitive installation procedure from CD-ROM or QIC-tape or via network
   Graphical system and network administration tools
   Support for UNIX commands, interfaces and utilities such as Bourne shell,
   ksh, csh, vi, tar and cpio
   Full internationalization:English, German, French, Japanese, Italian and
   Spanish versions available

The list of features from Free SCO UnixWare (currently 2.1.2) is as below:

       The Free SCO UnixWare product is a license to use the
       fully-functional single-user version of SCO UnixWare Application
       Server -- an advanced UNIX operating system that turns
       industry-standard Intel processor-based PCs into high-end
       workstations and development system platforms. In addition to
       traditional UNIX System facilities and development tools, the
       Free SCO UnixWare product includes Internet Services and full
       TCP/IP networking. Internet Services includes everything you need
       to quickly get up and running on the Internet or Web. Free SCO
       UnixWare product allows you to explore the Internet and publish
       your own Web pages using Netscape Navigator Gold  3.0. It also
       allows you to run your own personal Web server using Netscape
       FastTrack Server  2.0. All of this is facilitated by the fast and
       reliable transport provided by enhanced PPP from Morning Star
       Technologies. Additional networking capabilities include IPX/SPX
       , NFS , DNS, SMTP and POP.

       The development system provided with Free SCO UnixWare product
       includes C and C++ compilers, a complete set of libraries and
       APIs, debuggers, and other tools for code development and
       testing. Use of this software is solely for educational and
       non-commercial use to enable the evaluation and understanding of
       SCO products.

Since December 6th 1995, UnixWare can be purchased through the SCO
reseller channel.

To order SCO UnixWare in North America, call the following number:

        1 800 SCO UNIX     (1 800 726 8649)

For outside of North America, call:

        +44 1923 816344

Free UnixWare can be ordered directly from SCO
The current media costs are USD $19 (or #12.26 UK pounds).
Be sure to specify you want the UnixWare - I ordered it yet
received SCO OpenServer :-).

As above, Free UnixWare costs USD $19-

Please note: The information below may be a bit dated but was
current before December 6th 1995.

UnixWare 2.01 Personal Edition carries a price tag (list) of $445,
while the Application Server lists at $1,695.
The software development kit lists at $145.

Note that UnixWare 2 now includes the C compiler in the PE and AS
editions - see the developer FAQ for more details.

UnixWare 1.x

UnixWare 1.x supports the following formal and defacto industry standards

   X/Open Portability Guide Issue 3 Base Profile (XPG3)
   System V Interface Definition Issue 3 (SVID3)
   IEEE Std POSIX 1003.1-1990 (ISO 9945-1) [UW1.1.1 and later **]
   US Govt. FIPS 151-2 [UW1.1.1 and later formally certified]
   X/Open UNIX 93 branded

UnixWare 2.x

UnixWare 2.x supports the following formal and defacto industry standards

   X/Open Portability Guide Issue 4 Base Profile (XPG4)
   System V Interface Definition Issue 3 (SVID3)
   IEEE Std POSIX 1003.1-1990 (ISO 9945-1)
   US Govt. FIPS 151-2 (2.01 has been certified to GTI, MC, MFS and AP)
   Partial IEEE POSIX 1003.2-1992 support (commands)
   Partial XPG4 X/Open Transport Interface (XTI)
   X/Open UNIX 93 branded
   X/Open UNIX 95 branded (2.1.1 and later)

Looking at standards trends (as of Dec 96) UnixWare lacks completes
support for:
POSIX 1003.1b-1993 Realtime (was P1003.4) and
POSIX 1003.1c-1995 Threads;  of these Threads is probably
more needed than Realtime at the moment.

X11 Support (graphical display system)

UnixWare 2 currently supports the X11 graphical system at release 5
(complete with the standard X11 libraries and window managers). However,
an unsupported release of X11R6 (as well as updated graphic drivers) are
available in the freebird archive.

The X11R6 server supports PEX, XIE, SHAPE ,MIT-SHM, Multi-Buffering,
DEC-XTRAP, XIE, SYNC and XC-MISC extensions.

The X11R5 server supports SHAPE, MIT-SHM, Multi-Buffering, XTEST,


Motif libraries and the mwm window manager are shipped with UnixWare. The
current version of Motif is 1.2.3. Also included are the MOTIF/OpenLook (Moolit)
libraries and window manager.

CDE (Common Desktop Environment)

Although UnixWare 2 out-of-the-box doesn't support CDE directly, UnixWare
2 is "CDE-ready". This allows third parties to provide CDE functinality for
UnixWare 2.     One such company is TriTeal (see

This taken and Abridged from Novell's WWW site

Question: What are the key enhancements in UnixWare 2 over UnixWare 1.1?


1. Fully multithreaded: UnixWare 2 operating system, I/O subsystem,
TCP/IP, NFS, IPX, and user level threads, to dramatically increase
performance and scalability from small desktop machines to very large
MIS SMP servers. UnixWare 2 Application Server (AS) and Personal Edition
(PE) packages support dual-processor machines "out-of-the-box," with the
AS expandable to many processors via simple Processor Upgrade kits.

2. Improved installation and configuration. Installation
routines have been simplified, hardware detection automated,
installation over LANs is more flexible (TCP/IP or IPX), setup of video
monitors is graphical, and total install time is reduced significantly.

3. Improved PC LAN integration. Single login to UnixWare 2 and NetWare
LAN, printer sharing from clients to either UnixWare or NetWare servers,
built-in NVT2 DEC VT220 and Host Presenter terminal emulation for
NetWare clients, access to more LAN cards via the NetWare ODI driver
interface, NFS included in the Personal Edition.

4. Improved administration and management. Many enhanced graphical
administration functions, graphical performance monitor and tuning, C2
Auditing included, MIB II compliant SNMP network management agent in
both TCP and IPX networks, new Dynatext browser for on-line
documentation, dynamic start-up and shut-down of processors in SMP
configurations via the graphical interface.

5. Expanded hardware support. A broad array of Intel uniprocessor and
SMP machines, including those designed for the Intel MP Spec v1.1,
Corollary CBUS II, an other proprietary architectures. SMP platform
support is simplified by a Platform Support Kit (PSK) which abstracts
many interfaces and provides examples of working code for different
implementations. Many new peripherals including ODI LAN adapters, high
resolution video cards, CD ROM drives, SCSI adapters, sound cards, and
many others.

6. Improved SDK. The AS and PE include the C compilation system. C++
and the Graphical programming SDKs are included on the UnixWare 2 SDK

What about UW2.1 ?

A white paper describing UnixWare 2.1 can be downloaded from

You'll need a PDF viewer -
Binaries for 7 UNIX platfforms including UnixWare are available on has the freely available
acrobat reader for Microsoft Windows and other platforms too.

The html version is on

    How can I find out hardware compatibility?

Yes, UnixWare runs on PCs.  The necessary hardware configuration for
installing and running UnixWare is:

* A personal computer running an Intel 80386 or higher processor
  with a minimum speed of 25MHz.
  The ISA, EISA, and MCA bus architectures are supported.
* A minimum of 8MB RAM for the Personal Edition.
* A minimum of 12 MB RAM for the Application Server.
* A minimum 80MB hard disk for the Personal Edition.
* A minimum 120 MB hard disk for the Application Server.
* A minimum 40MB if you have a second hard disk (optional).
* A 3.5-inch or 5.25-inch diskette drive for booting UnixWare.
* A serial, bus, or PS/2-compatible mouse is recommended, but not required.

Evan Leibovitch ( notes that, while UnixWare does not
absolutely require a 3.5" diskette drive, it is a practical necessity
in real world usage.  Many useful/necessary packages only come on 3.5"
media.  He adds that the 1.1 release supports the new 2.88MB format
3.5" floppies for those machines which support it.

Eric Raymond used to post in the Usenet group comp.unix.pc-clone.32bit
a guide to hardware compatibility for Unix versions that run on
Intel-based hardware.  While not specifically devoted to UnixWare, it
was handy for discussions of the difficulties that may be encountered
in installing Unix on PC hardware.  Unfortunately, nothing has been
heard from Raymond in recent times and, while you can probably find a
copy of the last version of the pc-clone hardware guide in the archives, the information therein is getting more dated
by the minute.

SCO maintain a set of Web pages that provide an Online
Hardware Compatibility Handbook. The UnixWare2 information is
integrated into that. This is available at:

The latest release of UnixWare is 2.1.2 - from SCO.

The last version of UnixWare 1.x is release 1.1.4.
The latest version of UnixWare 2.0x is release 2.03.

Yes.  UnixWare 2.01 will overlay certain versions of UnixWare 1.1.
These are UnixWare 1.1 and UnixWare 1.1.2, you must remove the
UnixWare 1.1.3 or 1.1.4 update releases prior to beginning an installation.

Update 2.03 can be applied to UnixWare 2.01 directly without the need
to apply Update 2.02.

The UnixWare "Personal Edition" is limited version of UnixWare.
It is limited to 2 users and 2 CPUs (in UW2.x).
UnixWare 2.x includes NFS , TCP/IP and the CCS .

As the name implies, the Application Server is the server version of
UnixWare.  Originally, at least, the idea was that an enterprise
network would be built up of DOS, Windows, and UnixWare clients, with
a NetWare box providing file services and a UnixWare AS running
applications which would display on the PE clients.  I don't know if
this is still the plan or not.
It has an unlimited user license and the ability to support
more than 2 CPUs (with the appropriate licenses).

If you have UnixWare 2, firstly try the online documentation -
now in Dynatext and a great improvement on the UnixWare 1.x Fingertip

A book worth considering is "Novell's Guide to UnixWare 2"
by Chris Negus and Larry Schumer . This is a second edition,
the previous edition was about UnixWare 1.1. Published by Sybex
its ISBN number is 0-7821-1720-1.

Its also possible to order printed documentation (see the developer
FAQ for details).

Another good reference is the UNIX Press books on Unix SVR4.2.

Samuel Ko ( or maintains the "Concise
Guide to UNIX Books", which is posted regularly to the Usenet
newsgroups misc.books.technical, alt.books.technical,
biz.books.technical, comp.unix.questions, comp.unix.wizards,
comp.unix.admin, comp.answers, and news.answers.  It can also be
downloaded from the Internet via anonymous ftp at

This list contains many titles of interest to UNIX users both new and
old, and is well worth the trouble to acquire.

A list of pointers to  book resources can also be found at

If you are looking for a reference guides to UNIX, TPI and NPI
then see The Open Group's online web publications at

Open Systems Today, in its February 15 1993 issue, reviewed the
initial release of UnixWare 1.0.

The June 15, 1993 PC Magazine reviewed UnixWare favorably, rating it
the Editor's Choice for "Intel Unix" above Consensys V4.2, Dell Unix
(RIP), Interactive, SCO Open Desktop, NeXTStep on Intel and Solaris
x86.  (Note that the last two were reviewed prior to release.)  The
review concluded `This just may be the Unix for the masses.'

UnixWorld magazine profiled UnixWare over a two-part series in the
July and August 1993 issues.  UnixWorld looked at UnixWare from the
traditional Unix user's point of view, predicting that `power Unix
users will dismiss UnixWare out of hand, ' but also noting the
advantages of the tight integration with NetWare.  The UnixWorld
reviews are probably much more useful to a system administrator than
an ordinary user.

Byte Magazine, after a September 1992 "Is Unix dead?" cover story that
looks rather silly now in retrospect, gave UnixWare (then still in
beta) a friendly reception in its January 1993 issue.  `On features
alone, UnixWare is one hot number: networked file, mail, printer, and
application sharing; NetWare client connectivity; DOS compatibility;
high-performance multitasking and virtual memory; a network-capable
windowing system with scalable Adobe Type Manager fonts; two levels of
hypertext help -- and these are just the highest of the high points'
opined the Byte reviewer (Tom Yager [], Byte's
Multimedia Lab).

SCO has an anonymous ftp service at
UnixWare files can be found under ~ftp/UW20.

For freeware checkout
binaries of handy things like the GNU development tools, perl, Seyon
and GhostScript show up there.

The freebird project has two other prime sites:

A mirror sites is

A mailserver site for UnixWare binaries and sources (which makes
the freebird archive available by email -thanks to Martin for
keeping this going) is

To obtain an index of the contents, send an email to that address with
the following contents:

  send INDEX

Ensure you change reply-address to your email address.

    G15) Where can I get online information on UnixWare?

*** COMPUSERVE *** SCO maintains a UnixWare forum on CompuServe. If you have a CompuServe ID and wish to access this form, type: GO UNIXWARE at any CompuServe prompt. There are message sections for General Information, Product Information, Developers, DOS Merge, Installation, X Windows, Networking, Device Drivers, Printing, Communications, Applications, Bug Watchers, and Updates. If you do not have a CompuServe ID, contact CompuServe Customer Service at 800-848-8990 or 614-457-8650 for information on setting up an account. *** USENET *** If you have access to Usenet, look into the newsgroup news:comp.unix.unixware.misc, comp.unix.unixware.announce. These forums entertains discussions and announcements of all issues related to UnixWare. Other newsgroups possibly of interest to UnixWare users are news:comp.unix.sys5.r4 (for discussions relating to the System V Release 4 version of Unix, which includes Novell's UnixWare) and news:comp.unix.misc (for miscellaneous discussions of Unix). If you do not have access to Usenet, you have a variety of options. If you have access to a Unix system, chances are good that it may already provide Usenet access - particularly if it is at an academic or research site. If you do not have access to a Unix system, your best bet is to get an account with one of the increasing number of public-access Unix systems being set up by entrepreneurial Unix sysadmins. You can find the contact phone numbers for such systems in any one of the many books on the Internet now beginning to flood the popular press. *** MAILING LIST *** (It's not clear that the following list is working at the moment). The news:comp.unix.unixware.misc newsgroup is gatewayed into a mailing list for the benefit of those users with email, but not Usenet, access. I quote from Evan Leibovitch's instructions for that list: TO SUBSCRIBE/UNSUBSCRIBE/GET HELP/ETC: Send an appropriate message to any *one* of the following addresses, each of which is addressed to the list server mechanism at this site (listed in order of my preference): The body of your message should contain one of the following lines *AS ITS ONLY CONTENT*: subscribe univel Your_Full_Name (Not your e-mail address, the system will pick that up from the headers.) unsubscribe univel recipients univel (gets a list of subscribers) help *** EMAIL *** (This section needs to be reworked.) *** FTP *** SCO maintains an official UnixWare FTP site at To access this server, you will of course need Internet access. Type ftp At the login prompt, type anonymous When it asks for a password, enter your full email address. UnixWare 2.x updates and patches can be found in /UW20. *** WORLD WIDE WEB (WWW) *** SCO have now taken over the UnixWare WWW site (indeed UnixWare 2.1 will include a copy of Mosaic that defaults to this page) (Its not clear if SCO has a European presence for a Web or ftp site). Via the WWW server at, you can submit product inquiries and technical support queries. Plus, there's quite a bit of documentation there to be perused. For a collection of freeware and shareware ported to UnixWare see You can now get Netscape for UnixWare from SCO (see for a link to that). *** GOPHER *** We've no data on the availability of any gopher servers at the moment.

    G16) Where can I get a hardware compatibility list for UnixWare?

SCO has a set of Web pages containing hardware compatibility for all of SCO's server products. Certified hardware for UnixWare 2 has been merged into those pages which can be found at Users of the freebird web site also register successful hardware configurations at

    G17) Where can I find a driver for [accelerated graphics card]?

Try ftp'ing to, and look in the /unixware/freebird/x11/servers/betaX directory. Check the README file there for a listing of currently available drivers. These drivers are updated on a quarterly basis, and may be newer than those (and/or unavailable) on the latest OS distribution.

    G18) Is there a UnixWare user's group?

Dan Busarow writes: The SCO Users Group can be reached electronically as Subscription requests to

    G19) Does UnixWare support multiprocessing?

Yes, Multiprocessing support is included in release 2.01.

    G20) Does UnixWare function as a NetWare server?

Yes UnixWare 2.1 with NWS (NetWare Services) runs as a NetWare 4.1 Server. (Rumour has it than in some configurations the UnixWare NetWare server out performs native NetWare!) The features and components (this taken from that are included with the UW2.1 NWS technology include: NetWare Directory ServicesT 4.1 (NDS)T NetWare 4.1 File Services NetWare 4.1 Print Services Graphical Administration Integrated backup and restore Hybrid user management User Licensing

    G21) What is the future for UnixWare?

SCO plan to merge SCO OpenServer and SCO UnixWare into a product codenamed "Gemini", which will be a common UNIX(R) operating system implementation that integrates the best features from both. This is due in 1997. In the meanwhile SCO plan to deliver a set of tools to assist developers to migrate. See the SCO WWW pages for more information ( ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Andrew Josey, To email remove #nospam from From: line. Disclaimer: Any views expressed are not those of my employer, either past, present or future.

Популярность: 27, Last-modified: Thu, 18 Sep 1997 09:21:37 GMT