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 © Copyright   
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         -  
             
                     

                       ( )



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  1.   .

 1.       .
 2.  , ,   .   XVI
      ..    .
 3.      -
        XVI .
         3.1.     
              .
              3.1.1. -,  ,  ,
                      .
              3.1.2.  .
              3.1.3.   .
         3.2.      .
               XIX .

 4.      .
 5.     .
       .   .   .
 6.     . : "
      ".  " ".
 7.      . .
 8.     ,   ?
      .
 9.        .
 10.      .
 11.    .
 12.      
     .
 13.    "" ?
 14.       
       .
 15.      
     .
         15.1.    
                      
               .
         15.2.    , - 
               - .
 16.    ?

  2.   .

 1.     "    .
 2.         ?
 3.        
      ".
 4.        .

  3.      
            .

 1.     .  
     .
 2.   .    
      .
 3.     .
 4.       .
       .
 5.       
      .
 6.    .   
       .
 7.        .
 8.    .
 9.    .   .
 10.   .
 11.   .      .
 12.  -.
 13.     
        .

 4.     
             
            

 1.  "    "  
      -.
 2.   -  "
     -".
 3.   -  "
     -".
 4.   ,   .
 5.       "
     -".    .
 6.  "   "   
       -.
 7.     , 
           .
 8.       .
 9.  : ,      ,
         X  .., ..    - 
       X  ..
 10.      .
 11.      
         .
           11.1.        
           11.2.      
                 .
           11.3.    . 
                     XV-XVI .
           11.4.  ,    
                     
                 . : X.III  
                 -:  III .

  5.  " "   .

 1.       .
 2.         - 
     .
 3.     -  ?
 4.      .
 5.      ?

  6.  . , .

 

 
--------------------------------------------------------------------




       XVI  ..  
       -
  .
           
   (.   1).    ,
      .
      1975      
,  ,   
.       ,
     ,    
 .  .   . ,  
  ,  ,  
      
 .
         .   
     ,   .

            
 .-.,  .. (-
   , , .)
  .-.,    
  ...
     ,  ,      
        
             
      ,   
..  ...






                          "       ,
                                  
                             (,  XXX . 
                          ..);      ,  
                                
                          ,    
                             ..."

                           , " ", ., 1975,
                          .  27, . 23






           
       .  , 
  ,   
         ,  
    , 
 ,      (   ..   ..).
      ,    
 ,    .   
  , ,    ,
   ,      ..    
        
  XVI-XIX .    ,  
          
  .
       ,     -  
 ,     
,  ,    "   
        
      " [19], .77 .
 ,   ( )  "
"      .     
        .




            ,  
   ,        
  XVI-XVII .,   
  (1540-1609)  -  "   
"  [19], .82,  . [344] (Scaliger I. Opus novum de emendatione
temporum. Lutetiac. Paris, 1583. Thesaurum temporum. 1606), 
  () (1583-1652), .  [327] (Petavius D. De
doctrina temporum. Paris. 1627).
        ,   
   XVIII-XIX .     [266],
[284], [293], [306].     ( )  
, ,     .:
" ,    
    "  [19], .90, .1.
           
    " -".  
     .   
,         ,  
    .
        ,      
      
             ,
           ,
        ,      
,   ,  
     .
           ,   ,
        
        
   .         
 (XVI-XVII .)        
    ;     
.       ,      "    
     ,   ,
 ,   "  [51],  .105.
       ,      
 (IV ...)  . .     "  
         " (..  "")  
      .    :
"   ( - ..)    
       . "
[68], .VIII, .  ,       XIV  
          ,  ..
""  "" ,  "        
,      "  [68], .XI.   
         1544  . (. [68],
.XIII),  ..     ,   :  
    ""    
 ?
                (IV  ...)    
    XVI-XVII .      , 
       (  , 
,   ,    .   ..).
,         
   ,   .  
        ,
,   " ",    
     : 
 .  (, ),      
23  4004 .  ..  [20].   ,  
" "      :
"       
   ...     
     " [19], .82.
     ".,      
,     , - ,  
., -   ,      
  (! -  ..),      "
[19], .82.
             
 ,  "  ", ,
       (
 ;  -    ..):
    5969 (, ,   . ),
    5508 (,   ),
    5493 (,  ,   5472  5624),
    4004 (, ),
    5872 (   70 ),
    4700 (),
    3761 (),
    3491 (),
    5199 ( ),
    5500 (    ),
    5515 (,   5507),
    5551 ()   ..   [19],  .69.
         ( 
)      2100 .  
     ,  
,    200 (!)   "
 ".
         "   "  
,       .   
,       
 "  ",    
    ""    
    .    ""
   (  XVIII )
   .   , .   
   ""   [68], .XIII,
.       
,  XVI-XVII .     
 "  ".
    .   (  ) 
      (     )
    .    
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  "".    ""   
      XVII-XVIII
.,           
      .
         XIX       
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     ,     XIX  
      .
      XX        ,  
      ,    
  "" , ,  ,  , ,
 , , , .   
XX     ,         
   ,   ,  
      .
       ,        
      
        
   . , , 
           
[19], .83.
       " "    
    226 ,   
    557  (    300 )
[19], .83.
    "         52
,    II       206 
(  . - ..)   [19], .83.
           ,  
   : " , 
,         "
[19], .77.    ,   , ,  "
      , 
         XIV ."
[19], .69.





     3.1.      .

    3.1.1. -,  ,  ,  .

            
.  , .. ,  "
  - (de Arcilla)   XVI 
    Programma Historiae Universalis  
Divinae Florac Historicae,  ,    
   ,        
    (J.Hardouin, 1646-1724), 
    
  XVI ...  - 
   1902-1903    "  ", 
     ,  
 ,       -
       "
[141], .2, .VII-VIII, .
          
    (1842-1901),   
      
.  ,  .   
   ,  :  "
         ,  
   "  [426], .XXX.   
      !  
 .     XIX -  XX  [426],
[427].


                  3.1.2.  .

                      "  (1642-1727),  ,
                       ,   , 
                        ,  (1672)  
                       ( 1703)   ...
                        (  .)
                          .
                         ,  ,
                          , 
                         ,  ,
                          
                       .   .
                          
                       .    ,
                           , 
                         "
                            .
                          ., 1979, .903.

         - 
 .  -      , 
         
   .      
 ,       .
   .  (.[314]):
    1) "   ,  
       ",
    2) "   " (.1).
      - , .  
  .  ( ) 
 .  , ,   
.    ,       
  .. (    ),   XIV   ..
,       
   ( ).
           
 ( ).   (
  )   ,  
, ..   .     ,  
 ,      
    IV  .. ,   
   ..
     " -   ,  , 
.        
     ,    
 " [158],.104-105.
           
 ,     
,   .  :
      ",      ,  
 ,    ,  
       , 
  ,         
 ,   ,        
,      .  .
   : "     
    ,    ... 
      ...   
  ,    ,  
       .
,  ,       
   "..." [158],.106-107.
         ?    
        .. 
 " "   , ,  : 
        .
    ,      
     ()   3000
. ..
      ,      946
. ..   , ,  2000 .
          XV   ..,  
,       936 . ..
,      700 .
           1225
  .. [19],   ,     
904 . .. ,      330
.   .
    ,     .
           ( ) 
  300  (  ).   
(,   ,    -
  3000 . ..  )    
       330 :  946 . ..
 617 . .. ,    
       1800 .
             200 . ..
       -
   (   )   
.
                   
.,   [425].   . ,
-, ,       
    .       
   1728 .     
      1727  .  ,   "   "
    .    
            
       .  
    ,       
 .        (Abbe Conti).
,   ,         
 .
      .  (M.Freret)     
  ,           
.            
G.Gavelier',  ,      , 
  (  1724 ).        ,
        1725 ,  ,
          
(   ).    . 
Gavelier         
.   27   1725    
 .   .      :
    Abrege de Chronologie de M.Le Chevalier Newton, fait par lui-
-meme, et traduit sur le manuscript Angelois. (With observation by
M.Freret). Edited by the Abbe Conti, 1725.
        11  1725 .  
      (Transactions of
the Royal Society, v.33, 1725, p.315),     
           .  
    Father Souciet  1726 ,  
,             
    .
            .  ,
 ,           
 .    1727 ,       
    .
               
   " "?
           ?
      (  XVIII  )     
.         ,
           (" 
"    .).  ,  ,    
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   .
             " 
"  " "  :
    ",           ,   
    ,       
  ,     ,
   . -   ,  ,
"",  ""    "    ",  
,          ,    
        "  (.,   "   
". , - , 1995, .63).
                 ..,
       .     
         .    ,
          .


            3.1.3.   .

                         "..    
                          ,  
                              
                            .  
                          ,  ,
                              
                               
                           ,   ."
                               :  
                             . .: , 1981, .284.

        ,    
       
,     (.2).
    .. (1854-1946) -  
-.    .
      -        -    
       .
       I.     -
               .
..     ..,      
,          ,      
 .
       ..  .   1881   
         ,  
    ,  ,  ,  ,
.   1905   ,       25
.                   
- ;     -
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.
                 
                (
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.
       1922 .  -      ( 1925 . - 
).
      1907 . ..   "    "
[139],       ""    
,   .    1914 . -
 "" [140],       
       .  
1924-1932  .  ..    
"" [141],     "
    ",  
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       , ..       . 
.,       .  ,
        
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     VI  ..   
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 .., ,      
VI-XIII     . (   ,  
   ).

       ,  ,       ,
   .  ,     , 
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..)    , :
           
.


       3.2.      .
                        XIX .

         ,     
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   XVIII   -     1701 .   
"    ",     20-  
          
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     ,           
  (509  .    ..  - ..),    
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          (348)" [137],
.876.
             
. ,      
,   ,      500 
[137], .876  [145], . 23-24.
       ,       (,  
IV   ..),   ,   
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[138], .513-514).        .    .  [145],
.4-6.
             , 
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             ,
           " "
           (!) 
, .  [239], [301].     
     .   [365].
       . : "   ,     
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.20,27-28.
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,      " "
  .      
500-       
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  ,    .




           
       XVI   
             .  ,
      ,
        
.
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 (   "")    
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            :
"   :  ( II) -  XIX
 (1345-1200 .   ..),      -  IV  
(2600-2480 .  ..)" [39], .513,  .136.
                
    1200 .    :  "
          
     "  [39], .512, .108.   
     "" .  ,
        , ..  "
   IV   (.  2480 .   ..)  
    (. 715 .   ..)".  [39], .516,
.  150.     1800 .
      ,        -
        
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  ,   XIX .   
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       -  3623 .
            ,
    2079 ...    
,     
     
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,     , 
      .   
    ,     
 (..   XIX  - ..)   
" [22], .95-97.
           .  
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  [416]):  ,  3100 ,  3000  
..    - 2700 .      
(, ) ,    
:
      5867   ..,
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          - 2224   ..  ..
      ""   "" 
     3643 .
     , , ",   
 ,   ,   80
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.95.   : "   ,
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" [224],.95.
                  ,
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,     ... ,  ,
     ...   , -
   ., -    " [36],
.15.  , ,  "  
 " [36],.107.
     ,  ,     
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 ,    .
           , .
      .  
 ,   : "    ,
     XIII  .. (! -  
 ! - ..).       , -
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" [36],.61.
      ,        -
 XIX    XX  -      
        ,
      
      .




           
     .     
     .  
     
 ,     ,  
          
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  ,    
 .
      XIX         (
1882-1885 .   1878 .) ,   , 
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.  .[8], [280]  [337].     [8],
     .    ,  
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        ,
-,  (    
).
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 [8].        
,  ,  ,  , ,
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,    .. [8].      
      .
       XV      : 
,  ,    .  
    "  ".
         
   .   :
"'  ,      
 -   ,  500-1500  
  " [144], .69.
        [26],   
        
    .   ,  
,       
, ..  " ",      
       [141].
     ,   ..     
    IX-X . ..,    
  " " [221].    XIV-XV .    
,  "    ,   1420 . 
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(, XIII .)   , , 
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  ,   ,   ,
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 ,       :     1428 .  
  .       
 "  [221],  .387-388.
         "    "    
    ;   "   
 " [185],      
(. 818 . ..),  ,   "  ",
 ,    , "
 " [221],  .281.   ..  " ",
 "          " [221], .271.   
       IX  .  ..,    
        XVI .     
 XI . ..
               XV-XVI
.          .     1497 .
[141]    " " .  
..  [141], .4, .624,    
      
(!)  .    (, ,  I-II
 ..)      !   , 
       0,00007 
  ,     0,006,  
 0,003 (.   [141], .4, .625-626).
             
    XV . -  [122].  ,
         
  ""  ""  : () - .
 (1414-1472)    , 
  ,     
  [122], .3-4.    "" ,  
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[122], .152.      "   ".
   ,     
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 . "    ...   
-  ,    
  " [122], .89.
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     XV . ..   
       " 
" [122], .165,167,173.        "   
  " [122], .179.
      ,      
 ,   (   XV ...) 
" ",    " ", 
,       " ".
      ( 1497 ...)   
"   ",     
     .  ,    XIV-XV . 
   " ",   
.     ""   .




            .
, .     " 
" [19], .73.    ,   
,           
 .  " XIII-XIV     
 ,  " [364], .68.
     "     -    ...
     -  .     
     ,     "
[51],  .94.       IX  .  ..    
 ; ,    ()   
              
 [51], .94.         XIII-XIV
., ,   V.
      "       
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  " [51], .94.       
      ,  "  
          
    " [51], .95.
            
       
.    , "     , 
    ...  , 
   ...       
   ...      
 (!-..)       
" [51], .109-110.
          "    
,   .       
,    ...      
      ...   
         
       
   ...     XI 
  ,       ,  
  " [51], .117-118.
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    , 
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.
            
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 (. [70], .1, .16),   VI . .. ( 
).             
 :  ",  ...       
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,         
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" [70],  .1, .32.
          (. [70])   ,   
        ( 
  1273 . .., ..   1200     ), -
.            XIV
.  .. ("      ", [70],  .1, .32).
             . :
"     ,     
  (     - ..), 
    ""      "
[169], .26.
      , ,   ,  
      "  ".
   .  .   [97],     
 ,   ,      
  XIV . ..!  ,    
        (.  1344  . ..) [97], .212.
  ,       ,    [97].




          .
             
       .
     "          
    ,  
 ...       ...   (,
..   " "  - ..) ...     IV
. ..      ...     
  -  ,   ,     
     1475  .      ...    
 ,    1628  . ...     
      I" [110], .267-268.
      XIX .  .  [110],
.268-270.
       ,          
   XV . ..      
 .,   " ".  
       
    ,         
     .
                
       ,  VI  .
..  (   ), [110].  "   
        " [110],
.270.        IX . ..  (!) 
,      ,  
 XIII  . ..,     
.     ,  
   ,      1008  .  ..
[110],  .270.
      ,      
 363  .  ..,         
   [186], .148.     
          ,
  1545  .    1563  . (  ).
         ,  
,    , "     
",  [186].       
   .    ,  
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  .   
    " ".
     : " 1902       
  ,      
      " [110],.273. ,
 ,      ..  , "
,    ,  
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      " [110], .272-
273.    ,    "  
  ",       
.    : "   ( - ..)
     ( II   .. 
  )" [121],.47.  , 
 .   " 
  " [110],.27.




           
(,      ..)    
 . "       
        
,   .     ,  
       , 
  ...       
" [186], .155.
         .  ,   - 
  ,      " " 
  .
            .  "
(  - ..)  ...    (   -
..)  ,   ,   
....   ,     ...   
    ,    -
,     -    (! -
..),  " [19], .176.
     ,        
    ,    .
",          ,  
     ,    
 ...   .    
    ...    
 ,     ...      
        " [186],
.155.
      ,         
,   , , ,  
:  , , ,   ..  ..
     ..: "      
           
" (.  [186], .155).  ,  "
          VII
 VIII    ",   () 
  " ... ,  ;     
 ,      
 "  [186], .156 - 157.
     :  "  ...    VII   VIII 
....         
   ,        ...
  .      
 ,      
 ...          " (. 
[186],  .157).
      "   ,     
    V   ..  ...    XVI  XVII
          
,       , ...  
       .
 ,       
  .          
 ,      
   ,      
 ? ...        
          
.   :      
 " [186], .157-158.




                 , 
       ,       
 ,   , ,   
..              
        .         
""      ,  
 ..,         
,      
.
      : "   ...  
        
" (.  [110], .16).
          ,  
 "     XIX .", 
    . (.  [110]).
       ,      .,
,  -       
    :  " 
         ;  
        ...   , 
""    ,   
.       , ,
    ,  ,     "
(.  [110], .17).
           ,    
       
      '
.        ""   
[141].
                
  (,   ).  "
,    ,  
.        , 
  ,    
  ,     "" 
,   ,       
 ,      
   ,     ,   
 ,     ..      
,   ,      
    -  
 (     - ..).
....  ,   ,      
 .    ,      
       ,       
  " [110], .200-201.





            
       .   ,
  (..  - " ")    
   :
          (  ),
      (     " ")
[218], .13,,162-165,
          [69],  .130,
       (  ),
       (.. )    
, .. .
      ,   -     
"",    -    
 .
        ,  .
            -  
  ( , ,    
 ).      ( 
    ), .   (
-  )     "".
          ,   
    XII-XIII .   .. [19].   
      ,
     [47].     -  ,
      ,  
  XIII . ..
       ,     ,  
 :    [147], .5, .360, 
 [148], .6, .126.
          ""  " "  
 [124], .1, .3-4, .1, N 1.
             
,  [3], .88, 235, 162, 207.   
 :   "     
  (     
    - ..) ...    "  
   " [3], .162.
          ,    (
  -      ),
 ,     "  ,
 " [11],  .2, .274-285.    ?
      .
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                               "'  ,  
                                    
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                                , 
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                                 ."
                                    , 28.11.1984 .

          :      
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     15.1.    
               

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   [157], .100-101.   ,   
       
     [157],  .103,  
        .
     ,        
         .
              
   , , , .
            
 ,       1994
. . .3, 4.       
  . .  ().   1994   
    ,      Peter
Ian Kuniholm       ,
 ,   .
             Malcolm  and  Carolyn
Wiener Laboratory for Aegean and Near  Eastern  Dendrochronology,
Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA.
       . 4           
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1000   .  ,        
         
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         15.2.    , - 
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            16.    ?


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    ..." [99], .94-95.
     ,    ,    
      ,     
   .     
                  
.        .
         .
     1)   "",   
.       "":  , 2300  .
     "Science",   130, 11  
1959 .  -     .
     2)     "Nature",   225, 7    1970  
,         -14  
        
 . ,         738  
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7370 .  -      .   
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 -14.  ""   1300 !  
  .     ,  
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   "Antarctic Journal  of  the United  States",
 6, 1971 .
         "" 
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   " [99], .94-95.
         -        :
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      1988                 
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          :  
XI-XIII    ..      ?   :
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 "       (   )
  ,   1972 .  
          [362].  
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. [315].       . 5.
     .: "    ... 
   "   700   (.. -  ..) 
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     " [362],  .114.
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 2000  .       800   [362], .
115.
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       ,     
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  "  " "    .. [141],
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,         
 .  ,      
,        
,   ,    "  "
  ,          
.
      [141]       
  ,       
         
    .      .
               [141],
.6, .664-665, .133, .135, .672-673.   
 " "    ,   
,    (, , , , ).
        
30 .  ..  14-37 .  ..    ,  
  .    -  . :
     568   540  . ..  (   
..  [141], .6), :
     1394  1422 . ..  (    1992  .
 - ..  ..).
       1857  .  .      , 
           
[141],  .6,  .696,  .139.     , 
    ..        
I  . ..        ..  
   .           ,
       :  1682 .  ..
(  ..  !).
       1901  .  ..       
               ,
         ,     ,
[141].        
,        :
     1049 . .. ( ),
     1065 . .. ( ).
        15    .   , 
,      ,
     .     [141]   ,
      ,   ,   .     
           ,   
       ,   
   ,          ..  ,    
    ,        
,          ,  
          .
     -,      ,   ,          
                 
 ,         [176].      ,   ,
,      ,     
                
     .  ..:  " 
 (..   I .  .. - ..)         
          (..  
- ..)         " [186],    .135.
,          ,     
.
      : 395 . ..   1249 . ..  .  [141].     395  .
..             300 ,
  :  1249 .   .. -      
    1100-1150 .
              .  
     
...    ,     () 
 ,   300  ..   ( 
),         ,
      
  .      
.   :  1249   ..  
   "  ".  :  "   -
     ,    14 
1249 " [141],.1,.53.      
  (,      ,    
, -, ).
         :       
 ,  ,     
,       XIII 
..     .
       :   , ,
   -   ,      
(,  ,  ,     .).    
 -     :  ,   .  
  ,    
(   ).     "
": 3   33   ..     
  (    ),
.  [141].
           
(       ),   
   ,   -
  . ,     200   
..      800    ..   
 (..).  368  ..   
           
  (    ). 
        
 1600  ..         
 : 3  1075  ..    
   ""   700   
,  .
           : 368     1075 .
..  - ,         
   .   ,   
X .  ..          
  ,    -    XIII
...
         ,   , , 
    ,   XI   1086  (16
)     , 
     .   
       
,    , .    [419]
 .. "   
 ?     "  ?" ".
           ,          
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,  ,     ,    
   ..







         ,        
          .
              
        .     (
  ,        )   
        ,     
         
 .
           .
     1)   - 
    (  .   
[374]-[377],   -   [416]).
     2)      
   ;    
 ,    .
     3)          
   (. [374]-[377], [416]),      
       
 .
     4)            
     (),    
  [375], [377], [416].
      5)        
      
  ( ).     
   .






                   B 
         -  
      (,     ..), ..   
(   )    - "" (t),    
    t.        ,
,   (  ,   ..) - 
     ,   
  t,    -  "".  . .7.
            Y  (..   
  )    (.8)  , 
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      -    
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          ,  ..    
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    :
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 .          
:
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        , 
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.
        ""         Y, .. 
      (,)       ,
      ( )
  (,), ..  , "   ",  ,
"   Y",      (.10).
     ,          Y  ,  ..  
    (,)   (C,D) ( ),
  ,       Y 
     (    (,)
 (C,D)) (.11).
        ,       
( )     Y, ..    
    ,       Y   
  (      ).    
       .  
    -     
 .  ,     
       
.
               
.     f(,Y)  -     f[k],  f[]
-            "k" 
         "k"    Y.   
      ,      
  ,     f[k]  .
       
          f(,),
       ,      
  f(,Y).       
  ,   ,  (  
    )   
 (,Y).  (    (,Y)  .   [416],
[419], [375].)    (X,Y) ,     Y
.     ,   X  Y ,
..    .






      1978-1980 . ..    
      (,Y)   
     (,   ..).
( .  [416], [419], [375].)
     ,       (,Y)      
        .  
,           ,Y,
    (   
  ), ..  -   ,  (,Y)
  1   1/100  (      
10  15).  ,      Y , ..  
     ,   (,Y)   1/(10  
8) (    ).
      .12    :   -  
.. "        "  (.  1-2,  .,
1938, ),  Y  -   "  "  .  (.  1-6,
., 1897-1899).   (,Y) =  2/(10    12),   
     (      
     ).      '  
 ,     Y'  -  ,       
,  ,   " " (..
  ),  (',Y') = 1/3.
         :   =   ,
Y =   [166]. . .13.  
 ""   850 - 1255 . ..  
  ,             .    (,Y)
= = 1/(10   24).






        :
     )    ,
     )   ,
     )   .
         ""   
  :    
,       ,   
  -   ,  .. [416], [419],
[375].
     ,         
  :      
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    .    
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    ).

      Y -  ,   
    .     t
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  ,     (,Y) , .. 
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 1/(10   8),       
( ,       (,Y))    
     .
              
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       Y -    ( ),
      327-   [166].
     "   ",
   ,        
     ,       Y  ( 
    (,)    (C,D)). ..14.  (,Y) =
2/(10   25). ,  -   
 [166],  (,) = (1390-1717 .  ..).  
   Y     .






           ,   
            .
 :       ,  
 (,  ,    ),   
    ,       
:      ..?    
   [416], [419], [376], [377].
         .
     .  
     .       
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),           :  -
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"" ,        
 ,  ,  .   
 ,         
   .     ,    
      .
         ( ,  
  ..)     ,    
             ,
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 . [22]     [20].
     ,  ,   , -
       
   (A[1], A[2],...,A[k]),   A[p]
   (  ,    )     
    "p",   "k" -      
 .    ,  
,   .   ,  
  ,    , , 
        (B[1],
B[2],...  B[k]).  ,      ,
    ,     
 .   "  ".
         ""    ,  
        , ..   
      (       
).         
 ,   ""      (
    ).
         .
      ,  ""    
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     (..  )
 .
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:   ,    
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 ,  (,Y).    (,,)
   .     ,  (,,).
       ,   
  ,    -  
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 ,             
,         .
(  .  [416], [419], [376], [377], [375]).
       (,,)  ,  , "" 
   ,       .  
,   :

    ( , ""    ) / ( 
,   ).

           ,
          
 .     ,
    .   ,   
  :      
        
.




          .   1977-1979 .
 (  ., .)   
 [20],       
, ,   ,      4000
.   ..  1800 .  ..
             14
 .           
    15- , .. 
   ,    15  .  
            15- ,
..    "".
              
:      , ,  , 
,  ,   ,  ,  ,   ,
 , , , , , ,
, ,  ,    , ,
,  ,  ,  ,     , 
, , , .     15-  
       (,,).
        ,  
     :    
       (,,)     1/(10 
 12)  1/(10   8),    
    (,,)   1/10  1/100 ( 
    1/1000).     (
 )     .
     ,    (,,)   
        .   
   ,     "  ",  
 ,       , 
 .
        (    ) 
       
 .        ,
          (,,),   -
 .     ,   
 ,     ,     
 (  (,,)), ..     
   ,     
(  ).
             
  .     
 [416].






          
   ,     
 , ,   ,  
 .         ,    
  ,       
            ,
      .
          - "",  
    (   ,   
),              
.              
,  ,          
    ,   
      .    
  ,    ,
"-".
      ,      "" -
      ,   
    .      
      ,  
    [20].     
17,1 .
              
"-"      ,   
       
.          
   (,),      
    .       
"-"  (),   -    
(    ())     "",   
.
      :     () 
"-"  ;   ,       
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     ""    ?
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     "":    =
.    .
       ,   , 
 (    ),  ,    
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  ( ).   ,    
         
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,    ..    ,   
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 ).
         ,  
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         "-"  ,
       ,   
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    Q,           
 (       ),     
 Q         
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,     ,   
     ,        ,
   .
     :        ,
         .
        ,     
   .      
  .     
       ( = ), 
      .   "" 
,    .    ,
      "-"   Q.
    Q-,     
Q-.      ( )  
       ""   K(Q,Q).  ,
         ""      .
    K(Q,T).   ,     
       (..    ),   
  .   ,    
    "",       -  K(Q,T),  
 Q  - .     Q      .
     .
                "-"
  K(Q,T)    :    
Q   ,   Q -    ,
    (). . . 15.
        ( . 15)   .  
        .     
 ""    ,   
        .
     
  [416].      .






      1.  "  " . (., 1887-1889,  .1-6).
  K(Q,T)   "",   750-500
. ..  510-293 .    ..,    
  , ..    ,
      - , 
        , 
  .   , 
,   "-"    
""   .
       2.   Liber  Pontificalis,  (.  [47], .  .,
Gestorum Pontificum Romanorum, 1898.     
 ,  :
    1) 300-560 . ..,
    2) 560-900  .  ..,
    3) 900-1250 . ..,
    4) 1250-1500 .  ..
    ,     K(Q,T)   1-4
   a,   
 .
          : 
  , ,    " 
" (         ).    ,
       (,  
..), ,  ,    -   ,  
 ""         
"" .    ""  , 
  K(Q,T)      
 ,     .
      3.       ,    976-1341
. ..   ,    
:
    1)    ,  ""  (  976-1075
.), ., 1987;
    2)  , "     
" (1081-1118), ,  1859;
    3)  , "    
 " (1118-1180), , 1859;
    4)  ,  .1, ",   
  " (1118-1185),  , 1860;
    5)  , . 2, "    
 " (1186-1206), , 1862;
    6)   , "" (1203-1261),  , 1863;
    7)  , "      "
(1255-1282), , 1862;
    8)  ,  "  " (1204-1341), ,
1862).

             
  ( ).   ,    K(Q,T) 
 976-1200 .  1200-1341 .    
.       .  
 , ,     
     .
      4. . , "     ",
, . 1-6, 1902-1912.       ,
:
    1) 300-560 . ..,
    2) 560-900 . ..,
    3) 900-1250  .  ..,
    4) 1250-1500 . ..
           "-",  
     .  , 
       ""     
  1-4   .
             
" " (., .1-2, 1860),     ,
:
    1) 600-1000 ...,
    2) 1000-1273 .,
    3) 1273-1700 .






           ;
       .  
    
"-"   (    ),   
  .     "-"
      - .     
"" X(Q)  K(Q,T)       "".
  K(Q,T) (  Q  T)     
  {}    n  n,   n -   "".  
      {}   , 
 . 16.
       16    - ,   
-      ;    (
 )  , .  ,
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. 17.
           "",     
K(Q,T),      
"  ".  ,   {}  
 .    ""     
s       {s} ( s - 
,     s),    
 "",             
 ,   .15, ..    
{s}            .16.
  "",       
   ,    
   .   " "  
. .    [416].
            .    
 Y,    ,    - 
   (,),      ,    "-
",    ""  .  
,       Y?     
    , 
     ,   
        .
    :   Y   ""  , 
Y   ""     -  Q,  
,     "".   
        "" Y.    
,     K(Q,T),    ,  
      "",      
    .    ,   Y   
 "",     .     
,   Y.     , 
     ,         ,
, - " ".    
       .

      1.      500  20 .  ..  
 .     ,   ,
 "  "    (.  1-3, .,
1963-1964).    , ,  
"-"   400-200 . ..   
.    Y  "" .  
     319-227  . .. (.
.2,.502,503, .5,89).    ""
   "", ,    ""
  IV -  III .   ..    
  () .
          ,      
"",    ,    , 
   "",      .
,        
,      . ,   ,
   .
      2.       , 
         (    ):
    ) Y = Gesta Francorum et aliorum Hierosolymitanorum. -
Histoire anonime  de  la  premie`re   croisade.  Ed.L. Bre'hier,
Paris, 1924, pp.  194-206.
       ()   1099    ..
    ( ):   XI .
..;
    ) Y = Robert de Clari. La conqu^ete de Constantinopole.
Ed.Ph.Lauer. Paris, 1924.
       1204  ..   :    XIII
...     ,      
     .






            
 ,          
        .    
(,)    ,   "-" ().   
       ,      
 , ..  "",        
, ,    .  
 ,         ""   
    :    Q    R.   Q  R.
       .
,   K(Q,T)  K(R,T)  ,   .18.
            ,
   ""  ,   
   .   K(R,T)  ,
    "" X(R)    "  " -   
  X(Q). ,       .15
 ,        
  .
    ,    "",      ,
    "",      
    . 18,   "",   , 
 (..          ),  
  .          ,
    (  ..).
           .  
          " "
 1973  (),  
.  ,      
"",     .      
   "-",      
 {},       "".    
 ,     . 19,    
 ,   .    ,   
  ,      -   
  "".






             
.       
. ,        :  
,    1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ,
       1  , 2 .
     (  ) 
"-".
              
"-",    -    
   "-".   
        (.,
,   1968 , ,  , 
  1912 ).

         :
(1)  = .1-3  (, ),
(2)  = 4:1-16  (, ),
(3)  = 4:17    (    ...),
(4)  = 4:18    (   ...),
(5)  = 4:18    (  ...),
(6)  = 4:18    (  ...),
(7)  = 4:19-24 (     ...),
(8)  = 4:25-26 (    []...) +
       5:1-6   (  ...),
(9)  = 5:7-11  (  ...),
(10) = 5:12-14 (   [170] ...),
(11) = 5:15-17 (    [165] ...),
(12) = 5:18-20 (     ...),
(13) = 5:21-27, (14) = 5:28-31,
(15) = .5:32 + .6 + .7 + .8, (16) = .9, (17) = 10:1,
(18) = 10:2, (19) = 10:3, (20) = 10:4, ............, (48) = 10:32,
(49) = 11:1-9, (50) = 11:10-12, (51) = 11:13-14, (52) = 11:15-16,
(53) = 11:17-19, (54) = 11:20-21, (55) = 11:17-19, (56) = 11:24-25,
(57) = 11:26-27, (58) = 11:28, (59) = 11:29-32, (60) = .12,
(61) = .13, (62) = .14-24, (63) = 25:1-2, (64) = 25:3,
(65) = 25:4, (66) = 25:5-10, (67) = 25:11-18, (68) = 25:19-26,
(69) = 25:27-34, (70) = .26-33, (71) = .34-36, (72) = .37-38,
(73) = .39-50.    .

(74) =  ,
(75) =  ,
(76) =  ,
(77) =  ,
(78) =   ,
(79) =   , .1,
(80) =   , .2,
.....................................
(96) =   , .18,
(97) =   , .19-21,
(98) =  ,
(99) =    (  ), .1-15,
(100) =    (  ), .16-31,
(101) =    (  ),
(102) =    (  ), .1-11,
(103) =    (  ), .12,
(104) =    (  ), .13,
.........................................................
(112) =    (  ), .22,
(113) =    (  ), .1,
(114) =    (  ), .2,
.........................................................
(135) =    (  ), .23,
(136) =    (  ), .24-25,
(137) =    (  ), .1-10,
(138) =    (  ), .11-29,
(139) =    (  ), .1-9,
(140) =    (  ), .10,
.................................................................
(166) =    (  ), .36,
(167) =  , (168) =  , (169) =  ,
(170) =  , (171) = , (172) =  ,
(173) =    , (174) =  
, (175) =   , (176) =   ,
(177) =  , (178) =   , (179) = 
 , (180) =   , (181) =  
, (182) =   , (183) =   ,
(184) =   , (185) =   , (186) =
  , (187) =   , (188) = 
 , (189) =   , (190) =  
, (191) =   .
        .
        :
(192) =   , (193) =   , (194) =
  , (195) =   , (196) =  
, (197) =  , (198) =   ,
(199) =   , (200) =   , (201)
=   , (202) =   , (203) =
 , (204) =    , (205) = 
   , (206) =    
, (207) =    , (208) =  
 , (209) =    , (210) = 
  , (211) =     
(), (212) =     
(), (213) =     , (214) = 
   , (215) =    , (216) =
   , (217) =    , (218) =
    ().

      ,     191 -, 
    - 192-218.   
 170 - (   
  ).

      1974-1979 . ..   ..  
             
      "-".
,     2000 ,    
 ( ) -   .  
   (Q,),     
"".        
   4     (  2).
     ,  ,      ""    1-4
,     .18, .. ,  
  "",   ""     
 ""   1-2 .  
  {}   .20.
                ,
      .  ,   
       ,   
    .
      .21     
  .   
()       .
    -   ,  
,      .
          ,   
        
  .    ""   
  ,     -  
.. ,        ,
 ,     ..    
    ,     
 :     ,    
           
"" ( "").       
 (   ) ,      
 ,    
" ".

     .        .    . .
                "-".
     ,          
       .       ""
 ( )  20    .
         (Q)      ,    
        "" () (.. - 
   (Q).       (Q,Q).  
 ,          
().        (Q,).    
  (Q,)  (  169 ).       
K(Q,T)      ,          , 
    -  .   ,   
      -   , 
  "  ".   (       
..).
     ,        "-
"              
(Q,T)         . 15.       
 ,    (    
 ),    Q,     
     "" (     ),
   ""      Q  
  ,  ..         Q, 
   Q    ()    Q.
      ,  ,  
         :
     1) , . 1-5,
     2) , . 6-10,
     3) , . 11,
     4) , . 12-38,
     5) , .  59-50,  +    +   +  +
 +   + , . 1-18,
     6)  .  19-21, +  +  1-3  + 4  , . 1-23,
     7) 1-2   +  +  .
     ,     (Q,T)     
 1-7      .15.   ,
     (   ), ,  ,
    1-7  ""   
 .
         ""        , 
          ,  
" " (Q,T).    "" (Q)  (R)  - ,
  (Q,T)  (R,T)  ,    .18.   
          
:    1-4       1-2 .
         (Q,T)   ,   
      ""    1-4    1-2
,           
K(Q,T).        
 .    ,    "
"           "  ",     
"" ,  ,          (
),    .






             
         
 .       
,             
    .
           (   
K(Q,T)  (Q,T))     -       . 
 . .          ,
        ()  ,
..     ,          ,
             
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       =                 []
                                    
                                    

 ,     " "    
    :    ,,,,,[],       
           
,        - .   
,          (  -
)         .
        ,     
 (   1-4    1-2  )  
  .    - .  
,        .
    ,  =
  (, .1-3)
  (, .4-5)
  (, .6-8)
  (, .9-10)
  (, .11(.1-9))
  (, .11(.10-32))
  (, .12)
  (, .13-38)
  (, . 39-50)
  () // ( +  +  +   + ,
    .1-18)
  (, .19-21)
  ( + 1-2  + 3 , .1-11)
  (3 , .12-22, + 4 , .1-23)
  (4  , .24)
[]  (4 , .25 +  +  + ).
      ,      []  (  
- )      . 1-2  .   
      -   ,    .
 ,    ,       
.       "" NN  1-170   
  {} .        : ""
98-137     "" 138-167  -    :
  ,      ,   
 98-137      ,    
     (. 20  21).
           19   
.   138-167      .
        
 ,    
    ,    .    . 21 
    ,          
 .





               ,
, ,   :   
      .   
    ,     , 
   -   "".
 ,    ,   
"  ",      
     , ,  
.       
   ,  - ,
   ""    
     .
-    34 ,    
 :

   1)  (. ;  . ).
   2)  .
   3)  .     
 ,     
 (. ).      .
   4)        (. , ,
; . ;  . ,  ;   .
,   ..;  .   (,  
..)).
   5)       (.    
; .         ;
.     ( );    .   
   ;  . ,  
).
   6)       (. ;  .
; .  ;   . ;    .
 ;       
  ( ),    ).
   7)          (. ;  .
;  ,  -  ;  .  ;  . ;   .
" ").
   8)      (. ;  . ).
   9)  =  .
   10)       B[1], ..., B[p] (
:  a[k] =          
  B[k]; c[k,x]  =      B[k]  
B[x]).
   11) ""  B[k]  ,    "k" (.
; . ;     :    
   ).
   12)     B[k]    
(, ,  ,   ..).
   13)   B[k] (.  ; .  
; .     ( ,  ); .
    ).
   14)   (.  ;  .  ; .
 ).
   15)     (.     
 ;  .     
).
   16)    (. ;  .   ).
   17)    (.  (); .   
 ).
   18)   () .
   19)      .
   20)     (.  ;  .  ).
   21)     (.  ;  . ).
   22)     .
   23)   ( ).
   24)     ( ).
   25)   .
   26)   .
   27)     (.    
; .    ;  .   
   ).
   28)     (  ).
   29)    (    ,
 ).
   30)   , , .
   31)   ,   ..
   32)   (.   ; . 
 ( ); .     ; . ,
 ).
   33)      
( , ,   ..).
   34)   ""    
     34 "".

        -1, -2, ..., -34.  , 
  ""        ,  
   ,    
.        
-  .   ,     
        - .   
  -,    -
.           
    ,       
-.
       (      
):             
?         ,   
      (. ).
       , 
.   ,       -
     ?        
  ,     " " (.
),        .
      -   ""     ,
              ;    
-    ,  -  "" 
 .
          , 
(,,),      " -"  
"".    .  [416], [375].   
              
:  ,    -,         
,       , 
-    .   ,    
 - ,  ,  .






         
  .     
      ,     .
           , ..
         ,   
  .     
      -, 
     (      
)     ,    .       
   .      1979-1980 .
     
    .
           
 ,         
   :
   )    (   )
        (..  "  
");
   )        (,  
,         )  
     (..   
).
       ,          
..,               
 .          
.     ,    
 Q    L(Q,T),     L(Q,Q)  
,        Q,    L(Q,T)
,             .
           
,     L(Q,T)       .15 (
    ).    , 
            -  
,   ,       .
     ,      
  .          
,    .
       ,     
 (  X-XI . ..)    ,
   ,       
,        XVI  .  ..     
    ( ,   XVII .).
          "  "  
.
     ,  ,      XVI  .  ..
          .     1522 .,
   (.    )     
  ,     :   -
 ,      
,         , 
    ,    
    ,    ..   
,      ,  
  ,           
      .    ( 
      )         ,
    (  )  .
,       ,  -   
 ,  Gottia (?) -    ,
   ,      - Judei,  ..  
  (1598 .)     ,
     .  , ,    XVII .  (.  
  )     .
         ,    
"",    ,        .
     .       
 .
     1)    ""  (. , 1545
., ., , [64], . 97),     
,     II  . ..,    XV-XVI .  .., .. 
    .      
    ""  (. ).
     2)           tabula Pentingeriana
(., , [1],  .3, .232-233)       ..,
 ,   XII-XIV . ..    
 -   .
     3)    (, , 
       , .
[64]):   ( VIII  .  ..),   (, VI-V
.   ..),   (, V  .    ..),   (,
V-IV .   ..),  (, 276-194 .   ..), ""
 (, 168-165 .   ..), -      
          
' ,    XIII-XV . ..








      1974-1980 .       
        ,  , ,
  .        
  [20]    14     (.  ) 
   222  (,   ..),
          ,
        4000  .  ..
 1800 .  ..    .    
(, ,   ,     ..)   
        -  ,
      .
               
(    )       .
        
.        ( )
  .    -    ,   
-    (,  ).     (,)  
(,D)      (  ), 
           ,
    .
    ,       
""         
(    ).





              
    .     ,    ,
       ,    
  [416], [374] - [377].   ,   
(,Y)        ,Y,
   .     (,)
   ,  ,    L(Q,T)    ,
  -.      
        ,    
  ,      
(,Y),  (,)       ,  ..
,          (,
, -  ..).     .
                 
753-236  .    ..           
300-816 . ..   :   (,)   300  816 .  ..
, ,     .  "
    "  (. 1-5, , 1902-1912).  
   "  ".
     ""  (,D)   1-    517  .   
   " Y",     :
     1) "  " . (.  1-6, ., 1897-1899)  
1-  459  .    ,     ,
  .
     2)       (,D)  459  517 . 
 ,     
.. "     " (., 1928, ).
               
         
p = 2/(10   12). (.   .12).   
(,Y),   -   ( ),  Y - 
    ( ), :  p(,Y) = 6/(10 
 11).           ` =
    300  758 . ..      Y` =
  " "   1-  459 .   ,
  : (`,Y`) = 6/(10   10).
            , 
  :   ""  , - , 
     (   
 ).          
,       ,  "  
" .  (. . 22)
            (,)  (,D), 
      (,Y).  
 -.       .






            
        . 
            4000
.  ..   1800 . ..    (. [20]  .).
      (       15  )
    ,        3.  
        ,   
 (  ),      
(,)    ,       ,
..   1/(10   12)  1/(10   8). 
  .
            
  ,        
.   -         
      ;       
  -         .
     
 ,   , 
-       -   .
      ,      ,
..     - ,    ,
 ,      , ..    
    ,   (
).            
     ; ,   
     ,  ..,  
    (    ) 
   ,       [377].
             :
         
(,            
    ),     
   :       
  .  ,     II 
     :  1196, 1212, 1215,
1220 .       ""   (
       ).    
      .     ,
             
  .


                 

     1)   =   ,      
  82-83  .    ..        217 . ..,
          =   ,    
270 ...     526 . ..  (, ) =
1/(10   12),        
     333 . . .23.

     2)  =    922-724 .  ..  (
 , 1-4 . ),
         =    , 300-476 . ..  (, )
= 1,3/(10   12). . .22.

     3)  =    928-582 .  .. (  
, 1-4 . ),
         =      , 300-552 . ..
 (, ) = 1,4/(10   12). . .25.

         1-3,   , 
   ,   [141],    
  (     N 3)     ,
  [141]      .   
,   ,    [141],    
  (  (,)),    ,  ..
  " "  .  
  ,        " "
             
     .        
   ,           
       
 .
           ,   , 
 ,     (.  ),     
           
     .

     4)   =      140-314 .  ..,
          =    324-532 ...  (,) =
8,66/(10   8).       N 1.
. .26.

     5)  =         
, ..  681-887 ...;
         =       324-527 . ..
 (,) = 8,25/(10   9).  . .27,28.

     6)  =     983-1266 . ..
          =    270-553 . ..  (,) =
2,3/(10   10).       
     720 . . .29,30.

     7)  =    911-1254 . ..
         = -   1273-1637 ... (!).
  (,) = 1,2/(10   12).     
       362  (  ).
. .31,32.

     8)  =     936-1273 . ..
         =    82 .  ..  217 . .. 
(,) = 1,3/(10   12). . .33,34.

     9)  =     928-587 .  ..   (,
1-4 . ) (.    N 3).
         =      911-1307 . .. (!).
 (,) = 1/(10   12). . .35,36.

    10)  =    922-724 .  ..  (,
1-4 . ),
         =      
          920-1170 . ..  (!).
 (, ) = 1/(10   8). . .37,38.
            
 :   ,   ( ),
  ().       
,       
     -  
X-XIV . .. , ,  -  XIV-XVI
.         ,
   [141],       
 .
             (. [416]).
, ,         
  1250-1460 .  ..     
  510-300 .  .. . [433].

               
      ()  
    ,  (,)    ,   
  , ..  1/(10   8)  1/(10 
 12).
         , , 
  ,       ,     
 (,Y).






        :      
         ,
..      ,  
  .  , ,  
 (,Y),     (,),    ,
  - .    ,  
    ,  ,
     [141]   
 "" .






                 
  1600 .  ..  1700 . ..  :  ,
, .       ,  
    ,     
 , .. ,    ,  -  
        [416], [374]-[377], ..
"".        
.     - .    
  -    ("").  
    ,    -  ,
          
   (),      
.  :

       =                    
                                        
                                         
                                  
                                      
                                     
                                     

.  .  39,        .  
    (  "  "  )   
  -        
  .        
 (=) [1], [2], [3], [4],   
:

?
?                                                   ? [4]
?
  1778 ?                                   ? C[3]
                 ?
            1053  ?                        ? C[2]
                             ?
                                     ?               ?
                     333                       ? C[1]
                                     ?                     ?
                                     
             ?                   ?  A
              
.  . 39.                      ?                 ?
                                     ?                     ? C[0]
                                     ?                     ?
                                     +








             ()
 ,    ,   ,  ,
 .  ,    :   = [1] + [2] + [3] +
[4].  ,       (    
 ,    "  "
),  .     [2]  
  [1]     333  ,  [3]
   [1] + [2]      1053 ,
,  ,  [4]    [1] + [2] + [3]
    1778 .         
 .        
 ,      [416]  
   (  ..).
               :
" "       
 " ",      
         
 [1].     [2], [3], [4]  
 [1]       (  )   
:  333 , 1053 , 1778  ().
       , " " 
     [1]  [0], 
  300 . ..  , , 
       - [0] (  [1])
  960 . .., ..   ,
  () 960 . ..,  ""
       ,  
 960 . ..   ""   
.  - [0]   (),(), ()
   ,    [0] 
   (), (), (),   920-960 .  ..
          1974-1980 .
   ,       
    ( =  ),     .






       -  ,     
      ( 
),    . 
 (  ),      
(, ),    
      "".
     :                      =
 (  ) =      " ".
 (  ) =     , . 1460-1240  .
          ..
 (  ) =       ,  .  1236-1226
         .  ..
 (  ) =           
         .
 (  ) =        ( .),
             1-2        , 
         850-830 .   ..,      
            ;      .
 (  ) =      ,  ,   
          . 760-753 .  ..
 ( / ) =     ., . 753-523 .   ..
 (  ) =    ,   ,   
         ,    ,    
         , 522-509 .  ..
 ( / )  =         ,
         - ,  ,  
         ,   , 509-82 .  ..
 (  ) =    , , , , ,
            , 82-23 .  ..
 ( / ) =     82-27  .   ..   217 . ..,
             ..  -      
         ,   "",    -
         .
 (  ) =        III ... (235-251  ),
           , .. " "  , 
         , 217-251 . ..
 (  ) =         
           , 270-306 . ..
 ( /// ) =    306  526 . ..
 (  ) =          YI  . ..,
            , , , ,
         535-552 . ..
 ( // ) =    553-900 . .. 
         ,       
           , 681-887 . ..
 (  ) =   II   II  , 931-954 ...
 ( / ) =    , 962-1250  . ..
 (  ) =        XIII .  .., 
          ,   ,
         , ,  , 1250-1268 . ..
 (  ) = -  , 1273-1619 . ..,
               -   ,
                ,  
          ,      
         ,   .
       ,      330  . ..    
  (    ).   ,
 ,    ,  ,
..   "     ".  ,   
    :
     1)   XIII   ..,
     2)       VI   .,
     3)  --    I   ..,
     4)    VI  ..  ,
     5)     XIII  ..  (
,  ,  
).
         , , "" 
 ,   -   .
       ,     
    ("  "   )  
 .          
       ;     
          
:    ,     ..
       ""         
  :            (..
 [1]   [0], . ),        
    ,     
,     .     
   ()    ""   ,  
   ,   -     333 , 
1053     1778  ( ).    "
" [1]   " " ,   
     .     ,
            
   (  - ).     
       
    ,    . .
  [416]  [418].






      " "      ,  
 ,         
" ".   , ,  ,  
.    ,       ,
.  .         
    -,        ""  .
  ,    , , 
 ()     , 
--    .
 :

                    =       ( )
                                         
                                              
                                               
                                                
                                               
                                                

      . 39        
       .
     ,    (= ,   )  
 " " ,       850 .
 ..  1400  . ..       
,     (  " " )
      ,  : 
,   300 ...   , 
     (   
 )     ,  ,
     960-1500 ...   
  ,  , ,    XI . ..
   ().
         ,  , 
" " ( ..)   " "
-   VII (XI . ..).    "
"       , 
    (1054 .  ..)      ,
     .    
,        ""
  .  , "  XI 
.."      ,
   XI  .. ,  ,  
 - .    .    [416],
[429].
        (=  )   
          
   .   
    ,   
 (,Y) (.  ).     800 . ..
 1300 ...       .
       ,    (,),  
   : . [145] ( 800 . 
..   552 . ..)  . "     
 " (. 1-5, , 1902-1912),      300 -
1300 . ..  ( ).        
 300-552 .  ..,   ,    
  (,).        
 (),       "" ()
      800 .  ..  1300 . ..   2100
.
       .     
 ""         
.  :        .
,    ,   
   "-" (),   
   1  170.     137 "-",
..        4 .   1-4 
  1-2 ,   "" 138-167 
"" 98-137      .  "" 103-137
  3-4      , 
      
: 341 .  (.      [416]).
      "" 1-102    
   ,    
         
.   "" 1-102 ,       ,
    ,     -
  - "",  ""
        " ".   
 ,       17,1
  (      ,   
  ),  ..   17 .
        ,  ,  ,
"" 102 ,       102
 17 = 1734 .  ,  ,   ,  
" "    (   
  ),  1734 + 341 = 2075 .  
,   ,     2100  -
  ,        (. ).   
   ""       .  
              .
           ,           ,  
       (,) = ( 800 . ..  1300
. ..)  19 ,  ,       
(,)   (),       .  
 19     20 :  800 . 
.., 770, 750, 520, 380,  100 .  ..,  14 .  ..,  98,  235,
305,  493, 552, 715, 901, 1002, 1054, 1250, 1268, 1300.  
 (,)    (  ) 
,    ,     
  "-",  
,   19 :

 800-770 .  ..    ;
 (770-750) .  ..  "-" N 1;
 (750-520)   - "" 2-14;
 (520-509)   - "" 15;
 (509-380)   - "" 16-23;
 (380-100)   - "" 24-39;
 (100 .  .. - 14 . ..) - "" 40-46;
 (14-98)     - "" 47-50;
 (98-235)    - "" 51-59;
 (235-305)   - "" 60-62;
 (305-493)   - "" 63-73;
 (493-552)   - "" 74-78;
 (552-715)   - "" 79-88;
 (715-901)   - "" 89-97;
 (901-1002)  - "" 98-102, 141, 142;
 (1002-1054) - "" 143-147;
 (1054-1250) - "" 148-162;
 (1250-1268) - ""  163;
 (1268-1300) - "" 164-167.

           ,  ""  141-167
 "" 103-137.  ,        () 
 ()      ' .    
  ,       
19 .      , ..   
 ( )  . ,  ""
2-14,    N 1,  59 ,     -
13 , ..       (  )  
59/13  = 4,54.    .  . 40.    
     ()   .
     ,   ,   ,     
  .   ,   - (), 
  .40  ,       
      ""  ,    
"" 1-137.
      . 40  ,        
   .   ,  
-       
"-"      ,      
  , .    - 
  ""   .
       [416]  (,Y),    
          .
  ,     
 1, 2,... ,19.  (,Y) = 1,4/(10  
4),         (  ,
 8).     ,    
      (. [416])   
 ,           
.  ,     ,
     "    ", , ,  
      
       .
               
     ,  , 
    (   1-4   1-2
)      962 - 1300 . ..
    ,     
     -.   
      
 (,),     .    
,    ,   
,     ,  
      
.
                   
(-  -)    , 
,  .        
 (   ,  ,   
,  ,    )  
  XIII .  ..   ,   :    ,
 ,           
  ,        
(" ").     70-  
    ()  70-
     (1305-1376 .  ..), [20].  
 ,     , , 
(   , " ") 
         1376-1410
.  ..  (    ),   
    XV-XVI  ..
               
    -     (),  
       .
   ,             =
 (  ) =     ;
 (  ) =   , ,  , , , ,  ,
         , , , ;
 (  ) = , "",    ;
 (  ) = , , , " ";
 (  ) = " ",  ;
 (  ) = , ,  , ,  , , , ,
         ;
 (  ) = , , ""  ;
 (  ) = , ,      ,   
          - , , , , ;
 (  ) =      ,   ,
         "  ";
 (  ) = ,    ,    ,  
          ;
 ( // )  =  ,   ,     "
         ",  "";
 (  ) =  , ;
 (  ) = , , , ;
 (  ) =    ;
 (  ) =    ,  ,    
         ,      ( 
         "  "),  ;
 ( [] ) =  ,    70-  ,
          " ".
           
,      . 39,     
(..  )  ,       
  " ".






       .    
 (" "   ) :  
  " ",   900 . ..,
   , ""     
 900-1600 . ..   ,  ,  
" "  900 . ..   
(   ,  , )    .   ,
        ,    
          ,    
   - [1], C[2], C[3], C[4].  
, " "  -   ,  
          , 
  .
    ""      , 
  III . ..    .    900-1300 .
..   , ,    (.  . 39),
   -   -   1300 .
..   ,  " ",   
900-1300 . ..,  ""  :    
,     900-1300 . ..  (,
    ),    , 
    (1300-1600 .).
           XVI  -   XVII
.,     (  )   
, ""        "
"  (.  ""  ,  . 39).    - 
 ,  ,  ,  
    ,      
 C[2], C[3], C[4],      C[1].  
       1300-1900  .  ..   
   ,     
   1300-1900 .   ""     
  C[1] ( C[0])   
 ,     ,  ,
,      
  .    
       
  .
             
    :
     1)   " ", 
     2)      " "?
     -, "  " (.. ,  
     )    X-XI
. .. (   );  X .   
,     300-1000 .  ..  
 ,   " "  X ...,
    X-XVI . .. 
 (   )    X-XVI . ..





            
..   ,   
  . ,  ..,  
      III-V .  .. (   
    ),    
      X-XVI . ..,   
     ,      ...  
       ,
 ,     -
  .       ,    ,
         ,
          
   .
      :   ""  .     
    [141] ,  , ,  
         
  ,         (
     ,  .  )   
VII-XIII . ..     VII-XVI .  .. (   
   ).    
  .      . 39.   
 1053 + 333 =  1386          
XVI  .   ..         1524-1547  .  ..
(   : 138-161 .  .. [20]).
     ,  " "     
  .      1537 .,
  1538 ., ""    1528 .   
  " ",      .  
     ,       
,     .
               
   .       
I-III  .  ..     X-XIII  .  ..    
(.  )        
   "".  ,   
   -  XVI . -  "" 
  I (1440-1519).       
  ,    
     .     
 ,   ,      :
    (. . 41).
         (    
)     (.  1).






       11.1.        

          , 
  XV-XVII  ..  
 .     
     (.     11.4  
[419]).        , 
    ( )  . 
         XI  ..
(    .33)  I  ..    
      ,
   "  ".  
  X-XVII  ..,    ,
         .


     11.2.       .


            , ,
   -     () 
   .
         (-,   XIV-XVI .  ..) 
      ,   
         (), ,
    "" .      
   ,    ,    
-        (),    
      .    
      ,   , 
   :       
    ?      ,
, :         " 
" (., ,  "" ).     
          
    " " ().
        =  (  
) .  ( )   "
" - ,  753   .., ..     ,
  (  )       330
 ..   -     
,        
.
             ,   "
".  ""    753   ..  
    .  "" -   
( )  "" 330  .. ( ,
,  ).  (, ,    
 ,       
,  ,      ).
             
   :     .  , 
 I  330 . ..         
   ,    330 . .. 
  " "  [56], .26.
       [56], .26.
 ,       .
 ,       ""
(     ),    
  -    (  ).
                
          
 (     ) 
        (,
     ).    
   663 .  ..,  - 
 (   I,  III), , -,   
 ,      [141].  
,     -  .   
     ,     
 (   ).
          ,   
      :   , 
  (. .).      .  
 ""        -  (, .1,
.1).  ,  -      , 
,          
      ,  "  ",   
  [218], .18.1..  170-175.    ,
   "",           
 ,     .   
  XII-XIV  . ..     .
 ,  ,  , ,  (   )
"     ,      ...
      "" (! - ..) ... 
   ,   (., "
  ", ., 1947,  .28).
      ,   "  "   
        (, , 
    ).
      ,   I "   
   ...    ...  
    ( - ..)   ...
     
(.,  , .28).  ,  "" 
          .  " VII 
VIII .      (! - ..) ...
   ;     
      ,     ...
      
 "  (., .31-32).  
    .. ",  
    :  ,
    ...    
  ,       ...  
     "" ...  
 ( ! - ..)   
   (?! - ..)     
  ...   ( - ..) ...  
        
....   " [46], .51.        
   .
                ,
 ,        (
,   ),      XI 
  (   330  ..).   ,   330
 360 , ..  -   XIV  ..   (
)   .      
   ( XI  ..)   
  XIV  ..,     
  330 ( 360 ).      
         ,
 .       
   " ".

        -     "
  "?      
        , ,
    .    
(, ,  )   .42.  "
"        , 
   -.   , 
 .42.
      "  "   , "
"   X-XVII . ..,  ,   
  ,     
  ,    .. " " -
, ,  .   ,    "
"    :   
       
 .


              11.3.    .
           XV-XVI .


       ,        
" ",  -   .  ,  
  ,        
-         
.  ,    -
 "  ",      
" " .   ,  
-     ,   
  (!)    XVI -  XVII  .  
, ,         .
    -   , 
  " ".   , ,   
   ,   30-   , 
 .
    "       ,
    " [77], .99.
          1514 .
 ,   ,     
,     .       
    ,      
.           
  .    -    532
,    (  ) 
,    -   .  "   
  ,              
 " [77],  .99.
       (  ),    
      IV .  ..   
   :     7980 .  
  "", ,    , "
,             
 XVI  .   " ".      
        ...  
 (1540-1609)     "    
  " ...           1583 .,  
  (!  -  ..)    , 
      (  -  ..)   
 .  (        
     - ..)       
,    ,   
 ,    -  
                "
[77], .106.
               
-  :  "        ,
     ( - ..),     
 ...    ,     
XIII     " [77],  .107.        
    (1545-1563),    
   , .. ,   , 
   "   ".
     ,         
c.  "    
 ...    "  " ...   
      
  ...       
  ...         
     " [91], .2,
.107-108.
              
.,       
       , 
   .     ,    
  ( ,    )   
       ,  
    .



             11.4.  ,  
         .
            : X.III   -:  III .


           ,   
     ,     
 ,    -  (  ).
     :
     1)        
,   .
     2)      .
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avant, pendant et apres la  Renaissance,  Paris,  1922).  
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 - 1".

      - 3 (.)
    A.T.Fomenko, V.V.Kalashnikov, G.V.Nosovski. GEOMETRICAL  AND
STATISTICAL METHODS OF ANALYSIS OF STAR CONFIGURATIONS. DATING OF
PTOLEMY'S ALMAGEST.
    CRC-Press, USA, 1993, 300 p.
    -     1995   
"   ", , - "".

                  
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       "".
,  "" -    
600-1300  ..,      ..,  
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      - 4 (.)
    A.T.Fomenko.  EMPIRICO-STATISTICAL  ANALYSIS  OF   NARRATIVE
MATERIAL AND ITS APPLICATIONS TO HISTORICAL DATING.
    Volume 1. The Development of the Statistical Tools.
    Volume 2. The Analysis of Ancient and Medieval Records.
Kluwer Academic Publishers. The Netherlands. 1994.
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-      . 
      
       ,    
     - .

      - 5 (.)
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    ,  -  -     .
1993, 204 .

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 57.  ..   . - ., , 1933.
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101.  ..   . - ., , 1987.
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108.  .     . - ., , 1968.
109.   . - .1. - ., . .
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110.  ..    "" . - ., .
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111. .   . - ., , 1935.
112.  ..  . - ., , 1982.
113.  ..   . - ., 1922.
113. ..   . - .,  , 1984.
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117.  .   . - ., 1930.
118.  .-.    . - ., , 1966.
119.  ..   . - .-., , 1940.
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180.  ..    . - ., , 1930.
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190.  .   . - .6. - ., 1898.
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