Оригинал этой странички лежит в библиотеке Михаила Есельсона

English as a Second Language
Texts in English and Russian --- Tексты на русском и английском языках
Следующие далее таблицы составлены мною по данным различных американских учебников в то время, когда я был студентом ESL. Расположение материала (с моей точки зрения) способствует его запоминанию.
Я надеюсь, что Страницы ESL будут полезны для вас. Пожалуйста, присылайте мне ваши замечания.
When I was an ESL student, I compiled these tables from some published in the USA textbooks of English Grammar. As to me, an arrangement of the material helps the student to remember it.
I hope that the ESL Pages would be useful for you.
Please mailme your comments.

General Statement of fact Present Simple The word is round. .
N E V E R -- E V E R -- A L W A Y S
Something have ever (always) happened or have never happened before now Present Perfect Have you ever visited Kiev?
I have already seen that movie.
I have never seen snow.


S P E C I F I E D _ T I M E _ I N _ T H E _ P A S T
An activity or situation began and ended at a particular time in the past Past Simple I walked to school yesterday.
He lived in Paris for ten years, but now he is living in Edison.
I bought a new car two days ago


N days ago
In some cases, Past Progressive gives almost the same meaning as Past Simple Past Progressive = Past Simple It rained (was raining) this morning.
One action or event began earlier then other and, perhars, caused it. Past Simple in both sentenses + "when" for event occured earlier. I stood under a tree when it began to rain.
When I dropped my cup, the coffee spilled on my lap.
PastSimple in "when" clause.
One action began earlier and was in progress when the other action occured. Past Progressive + Past Simple. I was standing under a tree when it began to rain.
While I was walking down the street, it began to rain.

Two action are in progress simultaneously. Past Progressive in both sentenses. While I was studying in one room, my roommate was having a party in the other room. While.
PastProgr + PastProg
One activity was completed before beginning of the another activity or time in the past. Past Perfect. My parents had already eaten by the time I got home.
Until yesterday, I had never heard about it.
The thief simply walked in. Someone had forgotten to lock the door.

If either before or after . is used. Past Simple may be used instead Past Perfect. Sam had already left when we got there.
Sam had left (left) before we got there.
After the gueste had left ( left), I went to bed.


Activity was in progress (How long?) immediately before, up to, until another time or event in the past [not before right now]. Emphasis is on duration of an activity. Past Perfect Progressive. I had been studying for two hours before my frend came.
He finally came at six o'clock. I had been waiting for him since four-thirty.

An activity in progress recent to another time or activity in the past [not before right now]. Past Perfect Progressive. When Judy got home, her hair was still wet because she had been swimming.
Her eyes were red because she had been crying


Something happened or not happened before now, at an unspecified time in the past.
The exact time when it happened is not important
Present Perfect They have moved into a new appartment. (means before now) Without time words
Repetition of an activity before now. The exact time when it happened is not important. Present Perfect. We have had four tests so far this semester.
I have flown on a jet many times.
I have met many people since I came here in June.
I have written she a letter every other day for the last year.
So far

Many times


General activity in progress recently, lately.. Present Perfect Progressive. I have been thinking about changing my major.
My back hurts, so I have been sleeping on the floor lately.
Without time words or with

Activity is in progress immediately before, up to, until now. Present Perfect Progressive. I have been studying English.
(means: before now)
Without time words
Activity is in progress (How long?) immediately before, up to, until another time or event that have been recently. Present Perfect Progressive. I have been studying English for two hours until noon.
Duration of an activity that began in the past and continues to the present. Present Perfect Progressive. I have been sitting here since four o'clock/ for two hours.
It has been raining all day long. (means: up to now)
Time words:Since / For All morning, day. week...
Activity began in the recent past, is continuing in present, and will probably end at some point in the future. Present Progressive. John is sleeping right now.
I need an umbrella because it is raining.
Right now
With verbs:
to Live,
to Work,
to Teach
Present Perfect may be used instead of Present Perfect Progressive . I have lived (have been living) here since 1991.
He has worked (has been working) at the same firm for thirty years.
Since or For + to Live, to Work, to Teach
P R E S E N T _ T I M E
Habitual or Everyday activities Present Simple I study for two hours every night.
My classes begin at nine.
He always eats a sandwich for lunch.
Every day, week...

General activity in progress this week, month, year. Present Progressive I am taking five courses this semester.
She is writing another book this year.
This week, month...
Situation exists right now and needs Nonprogressive Verbs Present Simple instead of using of Nonprogressive verbs I have only a dollar right now.
I don't recognize that man.
Right now
A speaker expresses annoyance or anger. Present Progressive instead of Present Simple Mary is always leaving her dirty socks on the floor for me to pick up! Pres.Progr. + "Always"
A speaker expresses annoyance. Present Progressive instead of Present Simple I am always
(or forever,
or constantly)

picking up Mary's dirty socks!
Pres.Progr. + "Always" or "Forever" or "Constantly
F U T U R E _ T I M E
Prediction Future Simple According to the weather report, it will (is going to) be raining tomorrow. Will
Be going to
Prior plan Future Simple I am going to fly to Paris tomorrow. Be going to
Prior plan in progress Progressive form of be going to Don't call me at nine because I won't be home. I am going to be studying at the library. Be going to + be + ing
Planned event or definite intension. Present Progressive =
Future Simple
My wife has an appointment with a doctor. She is seeing Dr. Who next Monday. Future time words
Events that are definite schedule or timetable. Present Simple instead of Future Simple Classes begin next week.
Plane arrives at 6:09 P.M. tomorrow morning. .
Future Time words + Open,Close Begin, End, Start,Finish Arrive,Leave Come,Return
Present Simple or, occassionally, Present Perfect, are used in the Time clauses. Present Perfect emphasises on the completion of the act in the time clause. Present Simple instead of Future Simple.
Present Perfect = Future Simple.
Bob will come soon. When Bob comes, we will see him.
I will go to bed after I finish (have finished) my work.
Time words: When, After, Before, Until, As soon as
Willingness. Future Simple A: The phone's ringing.
B: I'll get it.
An activity that will be in progress at a definite time in the future. Future Progressive I will be studying when you come.
Right now I am sitting in class. At this same time tomorrow, I will be sitting in class.
Will +When
The future event will occur at an indefinite time in the future. Future Simple = Future Progressive Don't get impatient..
She will be coming (will come) soon.
Will +Indefinite time words
Activity completed before another time or event in the future.. Future Perfect I will have finished my homework by the time . I go out on a date tonight Will + By the time
Activity will be in progress (How long?) immediately. before, up to, until another time or event in the future. Emphasis the duration . of an activity. Future Perfect Progressive I will have been studying for two hours by the time you arrive. For + By the time
Sometimes the Future Perfect and the Future Perfect Progressive give the same meaning. Future Perfect = Future Perfect Progressive When Professor Jones retires next month, he will have tought (will have been teaching) for 45 years For

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